One way to examine this issue [violence against women] is by looking at the relationship of the female life cycle and women’s degree of vulnerability. Gender violence occurs throughout the life cycle. Violence during the prenatal period includes sex-selective abortions, forced abortions, battering during pregnancy, and forced pregnancy. During infancy, violence against females include infanticide, emotional and physical abuse, and restricted access to food and medical care. During childhood, females face genital mutilation, incest and sexual abuse, differential access to food, medical care, and education (compared to male children), child prostitution, and sexual slavery. The adolescent period brings the risk of dating and courtship violence, economically coerced sex, sexual abuse in the workplace, rape, sexual harassment, and forced prostitution. Violence throughout women’s reproductive years includes abuse by intimate partners, marital rape, dowry abuse, partner homicide, psychological abuse, sexual abuse in the workplace, sexual harassment, rape, and abuse of women with disabilities. Elderly women experience violence in the forms of self-immolation, abuse of widows, and elder abuse (which affects mostly women) (Heise, Pitanguy, and Germain, 1994).

Parrot, Andrea & Cummings, Nina. Forsaken Females: The Gobal Brutalization of Women. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 2006, (p. 12)

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